From Griselda Gambaro, Argentina’s most widely recognized playwright, to such renowned performers as Brazil’s Denise Stoklos and Mexico’s Jesusa Rodríguez, these women are involved in some of Latin America’s most important aesthetic and political movements. Of varied racial and ethnic backgrounds, they come from across Latin America—Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Chile, Colombia, Puerto Rico, Peru, and Cuba.

  • As a result, the status of white women, existing alongside colonizing white men, operated on a different nexus committed to the reproduction of racialized humanity.
  • Yet, there exists a wealth of critical feminist ideas for theories of identity, politics, and culture.
  • Depicting faceless bodies restrained by ropes and bonds of fabric, Gutiérrez replaced the typically banal message of Pop art with social and political commentary.
  • The Brooklyn Museum stands on land that is part of the unceded, ancestral homeland of the Lenape people.
  • Violence against women extends globally , and it has been recognized internationally that it threatens public health, violates human rights, and creates a barrier to economic development (Reference Bott, Guedes, Goodwin and Adams Bott et al. 2014).

There are cases where governments have generated specific programs and projects for small women-owned businesses, but they are not articulated to productive policies because they are not included in the economic agenda . The political context and the visibility of women in politics also influence the business field. Women in political positions can be an example of leadership; some research revealed that there is a relationship between women’s political power and the rates of female entrepreneurship . Conversely, women’s political empowerment and entrepreneurship support may be disconnected or be less evident for women. This would have a lesser impact on female business behaviors (Reference Brush, Ali, Kelley and Greene Brush et al. 2017). Holy Terrors presents exemplary original work by fourteen of Latin America’s foremost contemporary women theatre and performance artists. Many of the pieces—including https://kfmotors.motornetzwerk.at/2023/01/25/irish-women/ one-act plays, manifestos, and lyrics—appear in English for the first time.

His influential terms arte no objetual and no-objetualismo encompassed conceptual art, performance, actions, and live forms done in private, as well as new media, installation, site-specific art, ephemera, and traditional craft. Despite Acha’s open approach to art, he was not interested in gender issues or feminism. Latin American feminism, which in this entry includes Caribbean feminism, is rooted in the social and political context defined by colonialism, the enslavement of African peoples, and the marginalization of Native peoples.

So, although mired in conflict, the Encuentros signaled the intimate ties between ideas regarding gender struggle and the political conditions that give rise to those ideas. In regard to the legal and regulatory framework, Latin America has made significant progress in the promotion of gender equity, and there has been steady progress in institutional reforms toward equity. Nevertheless, in relation to the rights related to women’s economic opportunities, the results are varied . In the region, there are laws that support nondiscrimination, workplace protections, and pregnant women’s rights, among others; however, these are not yet adequate. Despite the fact that there are various laws that protect women in these areas, there are still cultural practices that undermine these rights. It is recommended to conduct research and report the legal work to give greater security and development to women. Terjesen, Elam, and Brush state that the role of Latin American women entrepreneurs is increasingly important; however, their participation in the economy is limited due to family responsibilities.

Political and economic transitions influenced the development of feminist ideas. Activism became institutionalized and the feminist movement grew in various directions. As the 90s came to a close, what started out as a spontaneous social movement with radical ideas about patriarchy, militarism, and democratization found its way into the halls of institutions and organizations that stifled feminist activism. The institutionalization of feminism was so profound that its political promise seemed lost. Institutionalization was not without critique, and the early 2000s marked the emergence of new voices that took liberal dominant feminisms to task by focusing on anti-neoliberal and decolonial critique which began to call out the hegemonic practices of Latin American feminisms. In relation to violence, no data have been found about the relationship between violence and women entrepreneurs.

More than 50% of women in Latin America reported having experienced stress “yesterday” in 2020, while 44% of men reported having felt that way. Lastly, the consequences of the pandemic, such as quarantine and mobility restrictions, remote school and work activities, and increased violence against women, have all negatively affected the day-to-day lives of Latin American women. In 2020, the World Poll found that 46% of women in Latin America said they did not have enough money at times to provide food for their family, while 35% of men said the same. Radical Women in Latin America challenges both stereotypical views of Latin American women as easily manipulated and portrayals of women’s activism as inherently progressive. This book will make clear that women are capable of defining their own interests and their political identities, organizing autonomously, and even using violence, if they deem it necessary to pursue their goals. Throughout our organization’s materials the word “Latino” will be used as the term to recognize and describe all of those who identify with Spanish heritage. To advance the education and quality of life of Latinos in the Charlotte Region through scholarships, academic, and cultural programs.

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In addition to visibility, establishing a clear legal framework for reporting and prosecuting femicide is important to combatting the femicide epidemic. Legally distinguishing femicide from homicide allows for investigations to be conducted with a gender-based lens and for perpetrators of femicide to face distinct punishments. Nearly 1 in 10 (8.7%) Latinas working 27 hours or more a week are living below the poverty line – almost twice the rate of non-Hispanic white women (4.5%). At the same time, among all Latinos, poverty has declined markedly but it still remains high at 15.7%. The story is the same for Latino families headed by a single mom – the poverty rate today is half of what it was in the early 1980s, yet this rate (28.7%) still remains among the highest experienced by any major racial or ethnic group.

Latin American Women Writers

I am president of the Inter-Parliamentary Union , the global organization of national parliaments. It was founded 130 years ago as the first multilateral political organization in the world, encouraging cooperation and dialogue between all nations. As president, I direct the IPU activities, chair full meetings, and work for peace, democracy, human rights, gender equality, youth empowerment, and sustainable development through political dialogue, cooperation, and parliamentary actions. It is definitely worse in autocracies than in liberal democracies, which are thought to protect and advance those in need. In many countries, women are sexually extorted to get a job, access to health, education, or a social benefit. Corrupt police and corrupt judiciaries can also affect women and their children in lethal ways.

However, there are alarming figures in some countries of the region and it might be assumed that violence also affects women entrepreneurs and their leadership. Further studies on gender-based violence are recommended to measure the impact that this could have on women entrepreneurs. In regard to associations, women entrepreneurs are at a disadvantage compared to their male counterparts, since they have less access to associations, information sources, and https://asatralang.ac.tz/spanish-women/ business formalization. While women do not have lesser entrepreneurial skills than men, they do have less chance of getting the necessary training to develop their companies. In addition, it should be noted that networks structure are different for men and women; women have small networks and these are mainly homogeneous social and family relationships .

InBolivia, the recent case of an 11-year-old raped by her 61-year-old step-grandfather and forced to carry the pregnancy to term has reopened this debate. While access to safe abortion is threatened from theUnited StatestoChina, the “Marea Verde,” or Green Wave, women’s movement has helped deliver groundbreaking reforms and progress on reproductive health and rights in Latin America. The artists pioneer radical forms and explore a female sensibility with overt or, more often, covert links to feminist activism. Many works were realized under harsh political and social conditions, some due to U.S. interventions in Central and South America, that were complicated or compounded by the artists’ experiences as women. Finally, the green tide has became an internationalist impulse mapping out struggles and legislation, bringing together a feminist agenda that goes well beyond a demand for an individual right. Furthermore, abortion has become the banner for rekindled regressive forces that articulated a true conservative counter-offensive. An internationalist perspective allows us to both map the global dimension of those reactionary forces and take inspiration and learn from struggles that have successfully linked the right to abortion to other feminist demands and attacks on collective autonomy.

The recommendation is to define appropriate programs to enhance women entrepreneurs’ skills and include them in policies and plans for greater impact. Lopez-Acevedo and Tan (Reference Lopez-Acevedo and Tan 2010) show that some entrepreneurship programs in Latin America, in countries such as Peru, Colombia, Mexico, and Chile, had good, positive results in business productivity and growth.

Importantly, as more evidence is gathered, governments and the private sector are gaining new insights into how this pandemic is transforming women’s and men’s lives and taking appropriate measures to respond to existing gaps. An increase in caregiving responsibilities and a slow recovery of sectors that predominantly employ women partly explain these impacts. While some Hispanics say Latinx should be used as a pan-ethnic term, few say they prefer it over others. A majority find more at https://toplatinwomen.com/ (61%) say they prefer Hispanic to describe the Hispanic or Latino population in the U.S., and 29% say they prefer Latino. Meanwhile, just 4% say they prefer Latinx to describe the Hispanic or Latino population. Hispanics who identify with or lean toward the Democratic Party are more likely to have heard of Latinx than those who identify with or lean toward the Republican Party (29% vs. 16%). In addition, the U.S. born are more likely than the foreign born to have heard the term (32% vs. 16%), and Hispanics who are predominantly English speakers or bilingual are more likely than those who mainly speak Spanish to say the same (29% for both vs. 7%).